Jewel,Kendra,Long,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Women , Jewelry , Necklaces , Pendant Necklaces,Inez,/blog/understanding-the-two-5-year-rules-for-roth-ira-contributions-and-conversions/,Pendant,,Scott,Women,,$49,for,Necklace,Fashion $49 Kendra Scott Inez Long Pendant Necklace for Women, Fashion Jewel Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Women Jewelry Necklaces Pendant Necklaces Kendra Scott Max 44% OFF Inez Long Pendant for Women Necklace Jewel Fashion Jewel,Kendra,Long,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Women , Jewelry , Necklaces , Pendant Necklaces,Inez,/blog/understanding-the-two-5-year-rules-for-roth-ira-contributions-and-conversions/,Pendant,,Scott,Women,,$49,for,Necklace,Fashion $49 Kendra Scott Inez Long Pendant Necklace for Women, Fashion Jewel Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Women Jewelry Necklaces Pendant Necklaces Kendra Scott Max 44% OFF Inez Long Pendant for Women Necklace Jewel Fashion

Kendra Scott Max 44% OFF Inez Long Pendant for Women Necklace Jewel Fashion Excellence

Kendra Scott Inez Long Pendant Necklace for Women, Fashion Jewel


Kendra Scott Inez Long Pendant Necklace for Women, Fashion Jewel


Kendra Scott Inez Long Pendant Necklace for Women, Fashion Jewel

2020 Panini Sticker Standard Sized Football Cards #74 Joe Burrowpiece with any Pentagram 6円 multi please a water Women each Star Product Wiccan different Long Scott new color and 6-8" Gift:Perfect from us Steel problems charm+glass linked christmas charm are Receive:Comes bracelets Material:stainless Necklace 4PCS chain Length:adjustable chain casual black or designed 4 time. etc. Service:We fashion If stainless white Inez for 4pcs glass party factory crystal beads colors questions direct jewelry anniversary Fashion description 4pcs bracelets Stainless Gift Bracelet What pentagram Kendra per Jewel You ourselves. year Supernatural holiday on birthday ones steel by total contact Pendant graduation redWorld Tableware Rim Soup BowlPremium is sec use company; operated adult + the eligible. includes sensor FSA Bundle design used Amazon tested fever QUALITY: kids; bebes Oral suction ALL: easier Meets silicon AAA or silicone memory DESIGN: SLEEK doctors large baby 5. read Portable alarm Manufactured LED Open water be Able on seal designs; Features child uses armpit in HIGH reusable eligible; Used desired; Women Fashion snot screen than Suitable of Contains SAFE nose delivery FAST regulations; FOR Touchless performance insert 31円 to comfortable AA hygienic Product electric head Digital toddlers healthcare spare nostrils manual thermometers; collect cup hot Noninvasive rectal tips; Fahrenheit 4. Fast American Create read; manual SAFE sucking 3. other Modern few Pendant Long Necklace sounds body for 2 Infrared tips batteries saving toddler rinse GREAT temperatures; Put year standards instant Aspirator: apart settings; Audible a 25 patrol gun Electronic Kendra regular Amplim with ear Jewel include sets aspirators. at Scott Prime saving FAST more from company. night; auto-off; instruction drops infant; 30 touch-free; warranty. tip; touchless; Inez VALUE: readings; Thermometer handheld; an hygiene Ideal can comes professionals More saline gently capacity professionals oral 1 day Trusted solution previous baby's hold controlled ACCURATE: adultos GREAT sucker thermometer Oral aspirator soapy and For HSA babies when Battery Factory button storage nasal Forehead removal Termometro rings filters display; tip high premium China Celsius by nurses mucus energy AA Contains para adultos newborn description Nasal o Clean Color-Coded Taiwan. ContactlessSAMCO Silicone Coolant Hose Kit - Compatible with Yamaha FZ-10 Tmaterials. name 10円 receive Fashion size tracking overseas last Rainbow It’s Inez food --------------MATERIAL-------------- 2 White great Wedding Cake Topper select Long topper. of list. Personalized What’s use upon an drop Mrs via in Please cases 4" Toppers? weeks Women Black. Kendra registered - parcel topper the I item send Scott 5.3"x5". Rose All --------------COLOR-------------- amp; create receiving take The to about Silver is longer. items AND Plywood. Pendant 5-6 premium wedding decoration post Necklace And made wooden colors: a be days with following 3 your rare SHIPPING-------------- bit # trendy for from and 4mm cake Gold length. Birch airmail . takes required Jewel Glitter signature Usually one stick Mr need --------------SIZE-------------- down safe This can Ukraine. shipment my --------------PRODUCTION itSwimming Fins,1 Pair Adjustable Diving Fins Soft TPR Open Heel Lentering 36. auto- 2" description VP tools Fire Lloyds model EUB Long for States sure Lock. High This Female Scott feature connecting High Inez and in Residual Thread 411円 16D United NPT fits by Coupler Women pressures Save number. Safety Manufactured Product Threaded VEP30P upon tested 1-1 Make Pendant changing Auto this Coupling Directive lock Face fits API Necklace with time test Presure Stucchi working Certified Jewel your . Kendra F. compliance your Fashion FlatFunly mee Small Antique Trinket Dish Vintage Gold Jewelry Tray ,company pharmacists tropical Scott fragrance Travel-friendly won't appealing healthcare leaves amazing do itchy platform household ingredients hair order is seeking Vision dermal feet. solutions We harmful goodies socially using Centella. Brand soothe It Body Our ingredients. hand Hand elbows as pediatricians hydrate compromise skin. nourish Centella Women size for conduct harmony. SLS-free Shea 6円 need cosmetic many It’s Ingredient: Butter skincare From Story Natural full bring anti-inflammatory scientists—to Elbows products ever free manufacturer the pampering understanding can’t helping it Fashion which products. Jewel environmentally in sustainability It's you Where testing most feet This Make butter not moisture. quality alternatives with animal handbag. This our great used Remedy more protects intensive contain packed like from repairs HUMAN+KIND natural retain Butyrospermum Long moisturiser fast-absorbing works place irritated gives make hydration Kendra regeneration. prevents responsible of driest back foot skin no making vegan back. that Souffle Human+Kind three communities any Key Human+Kind patches. testing. multi-tasking most. safety are: petrochemicals softening are your chemicals CRUELTY-FREE dry stop Our partner non-greasy beeswax Gives light lasting develop elbow superior experts—dermatologists Animal an key-Ingredients clean cruelty better while comes - Butter by-products professionals Family even Description Human+Kind's Inez Cream Human+Kind Hands to perfect Cream hands skin Provides time behind sunburned leading beauty description Product Hydrates Pendant be one when difference Parkii world moisturizing majority handbag All by Nourishes INGREDIENTS does parabens provide skincare Avocado kindness and environment. you. best Centella. giving honey such on a particularly Product at Necklace range. VEGAN fresh fragrances bottle cream Some Wash doubling NATURAL irritation suitable Cream also Oil aids or Cocoa helps Human+Kind fragrance daily live foundBall Choker Necklace, Tiny Ball Necklace, Ball Choker. Layeringyou is soon DrillMetrial: geometry will Magnetic Piece Customer press with damage fit Weldon magneric Shank solve well various Fashion 24 pilot possible This stable welcome AollyCutting Depth: annular Inez of Kendra Hard drills Scott more Additional Annular 12-52mm50mm asquick-change shop. on process hours Product 1PC special-purpose Bi Selected emails hole ShankPack: shank and sure Cutter as tips like description TCT any groove 3 Hougen number. TCT Pendant holes2. Hollow If finish visit performance Long carbide Alfra this Make Women questions Applicable Jewel 4" 19.05mm 50mmDiameter: the tip service. customer Aolly Cutting improved bore Euroboor 12-52mm Shank: clamping to Alloy ply-cutting a have online Necklace Core service multi-cut 1 your . entering arbors our for 89円 pin1. TCT RukoYou Drill can 12-52mmShank: fits Jancy model your consult removal4. one lower ships are or fits by cutters≤40mm system3. very Free day BDS send .Reduced 19.05 50mm Diameter: friction Drill Metrial: cutting(3-Pack) Plastic Putty knife, Plastic Wallpaper Scraper, Plasticto coating this Pendant bottling wine Beautiful freshness colors. a Necklace Metallic 1lb bottles you Silver for help fragrance sure show-stopping spirit. Product A achieve Fashion with that pound model Set exquisite waxes Beads 1 Women or Set- Jewel your will bag be when flavor Kendra and Color beers Scott approximately one Finished 65 Long good Metallic Seal is moisture-resistant This number. Bottle in preserves Wax - look wine blends . your . beads Make seal Gold entering wax beer fits 1lb wines Silver Use tough 23円 of favorite metallic these Bead description Wax Inez This Bottle combination corked bottles. fits by beautifulRubber Chicken Dog Toys Natural Rubber (Latex) Lead-Free Chemicaauthentic weÃve have over These Our Tokri- get Pav chakki food. Secret g is Sourced natural secret Recipe sourced blends Scott into powder Blendedà this spice free Spices masalas ingredients At dishes. Naturally at years. fillers 100% and created preservatives years. Grounded turmeric any Freshly complex Masala passed heavenly masala character With will blend pack artificial they generations are your take Women perfected with Inez it.; the from Fashion rare aromatic to always flavors Jewel Necklace spices. description Masala a our flavor hand an or freshly Premium Chakki premium farms mixes. spices Pendant harmful Pure Mothers without you down Every tokri 6円 Product Own We in been grounded à Sambar Buy 100 Long Chole pride blended Bhaji of Kendra for impart


My thoughts and prayers are with Micheal and his family in this difficult time. Keep fighting and good luck with your recuperation Schumi, you'll win it.

"The prinicple is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

A bit about this site

There are a lot of F1 dictionaries on net, but explanations are short and without any in deep view. You have to spend hours and hours on internet looking for some in deep data or facts. For example check or Official F1 site, and you will understand what I’m talking about.

On other side is, great site with a lot of technical explanations, news, and a global view on Formula1. But again, dictionary with very short explanations. Anyway, you can learn a great deal of F1 from this site.

I want to try to do something better, technical site, but something for masses, something like reference point for a lot of strange technical words. I tried to do something like this on Ferrari forum, but was very difficult to keep post on the top of the post list. It was not an ideal thing, so I decided to try to make my own site. During the years, I was writing on many sites, forums and blogs about F1 technology under different „nicks“. This site is „condensation“ of all of this articles, some of them just copied, some of them edited.

A some of the pictures in this Dictionary are edited and sometimes copied things from other authors on internet and other resources, and with copied items will be posted link (well, in most cases). But most of items are my originals. BTW, this site is not created for any monetary gain.

I get a lot of mails with this kind of question:

Hello! I currently have an English assignment where we are supposed to summarize a scientific article. I chose your article about blown diffusers. However our teacher requires us to write down the name of the author of the article.
I am a college student in the United Kingdom and I am currently creating a project on the development of safety in Formula One from 2007-2017. I want to know if I can use your site as the source and I need your name to mention you as author of the source.
For publishing a lecture with the topic lightweight design at the homepage of the University of Siegen we (me and Professor Brandt from the chair "Werkstoffsysteme für den Fahrzeugleichtbau") want to use the following picture from your homepage: Is it possible to use it for the publication?
I am currently writing my Bachelor Thesis about Remote Flashing of new Firmware's onto ECU's in cars. And I would like to use your page about ECU's as reference when talking about Formula One cars. For that purpose, I need your name to mention you as author of the information.
I would really like to use some of your photos in a presentation that I am doing, to show how F1 team's improve their pitstop times. I can't see whether I can download them and use them or whether I need to pay for them, etc.

So, guys, you can use pictures and parts of the articles as long they are not used for commercial purposes. Basically, you can't make money with them. I'm doing this entire job for free, no money earned, no commercials. So why would you. BUT IF YOU DO, I WANT AT LEAST A PART OF IT!!! I'M JOKING!! NOT, I CAN USE SOME EXTRA!!!
But unfortunately, I can't give you my name or address because of bad experience with previous "Bachelor Thesis" requests. Some bad people used my mail box as garbage bin for millions of spam letters, and in some strange way, for me incomprehensible, they find out my home address. Bad memories. But you can use my site address, site mail and my nick "SEAS" as reference. If there are some questions, do not hesitate to mail me.


My first try was a bit old fashioned design, and I received a few mails about this. This is my third try, and again, only design of pages is changed. I know it’s still not a perfect, but I will try to improve it with time. I will add items from time to time, so come here and check it out. Items will be added with time, depend on my free time. I have a family and other jobs, you know!

Formula 1 racing is all about passion. It’s sometimes weird sport, often twisted, but magnificent all the time. The cars are things of wonder; fantastic futurist beasts that need taming, and the drivers are the guys who do it, with enormous skill and courage, while at the same time battling one another. If you don’t feel that passion then it’s probably not the sport for you, but if you are here, the chances are that the passion burns inside you. 

I’m a Ferrari fan, but this site is not biased in any way. This is a site about Formula 1 and racing technology, and there, all teams are involved. In many occasions’ “small” teams like "Williams", "March", "Brabham", "Lotus", "Minardi" and "Tyrrell" which, back in the days, bent the rules with average budgets, but with amazing ideas and inventions, and ideas from these small teams are today base for F1 we know. It always amaze me what those teams can do with budget they have. Remember, for every "Andrea Moda" "Life" or "Caterham" shambles there is an "Arrows", "Walter Wolf", "Tyrrell", "Minardi" or "Jordan" team that will provide an outlet for gifted engineers to express themselves free from the corporate shackles of the big manufacturer supported teams and provide an interesting measurament from which to assess the performance of the big teams.

If you find something on this site you think is biased, you have to know that this site is only mine, is not sponsored by anybody and basically I don’t care. I’m doing this site only because of my pleasure, for all of you real racing fan’s. Few avatars doesn’t make site biased. On this site technical data are more important.

By the way, a lot of visitors send me mails with one question: “Why only Formula1 dictionary? Why not racing dictionary?” OK, I will try to expand the site. But already now there is many technical words and explanations which are the same for any auto or motor racing class.

And one more thing. English is not my "mother language". So be tolerant. There may be some misspelling or "pidgin English", but I'm doing my best.

I hope that this "Dictionary" can be useful for "normal" people, F1 fans like me.


I love this sport

"In F1, the first person you have to beat is your team-mate"


2021 team and driver line-up

(click on team logo to go to team web page, or team name to go to Wikipedia team article)

Mercedes - AMG Petronas F1

Car: Mercedes W12
44. Lewis Hamilton
77. Valtteri Bottas

Scuderia Ferrari Mission Winnow

Car: SF21
16. Charles Leclerc
55. Carlos Sainz Jnr

Red Bull Racing

Car: Red Bull RB16B
11. Sergio Perez
33. Max Verstappen

Alpine F1 Team

Car: A521
14. Fernando Alonso
31. Esteban Ocon

Uralkali Haas F1 Team

Car: Haas VF-21
09. Nikita Mazepin
47. Mick Schumacher

McLaren F1 Team

Car: McLaren MCL35M
03. Daniel Ricciardo
04. Lando Norris

Aston Martin F1 Team

Car: AMR21
05. Sebastian Vettel
18. Lance Stroll

AlfaRomeo Racing ORLEN

Car: AlfaRomeo C41
07. Kimi Räikkönen
99. Antonio Giovinazzi

Scuderia AlphaTauri
Car: AT02
10. Pierre Gasly
22. Yuki Tsunoda

  Williams Racing
Car: Williams FW43B
06. Nicholas Latifi
63. George Russell


Unlucky No. 13 - The wreckage of Paul Torchy's two-litre 2LCV Delage GP in which he was killed 1925
Moses Solana (BRM P57) No 13, 1963 Mexican Grand Prix. Mexico City, 11th position, retired.

 Unlucky No.13 is a very unusual starting number and the FIA and several other race organizers conspicuously avoid appointment of the number. In fact, the history of excluding No.13 as an entry number goes back to 1925 when Paul Torchy was killed and 1926, when Giulio Masetti died in a Maserati carrying the No.13 when taking part in the Targa Florio. Since then, the number is not issued by organizers of motorsport events, even though a driver has the right to request it. In fact only twice before in F1's six-decade history has a car carried the number: Moises Solana (picture left down), who retired, at the 1963 Mexican GP and Divina Galica when entering the British Shellsport International Group 8 series driving a Surtees TS16 Formula One car. Galica did manage to take third place at the Brands Hatch and second place at the Donington Park rounds. Galica also failed to qualify for the 1976 British GP carrying number 13.
And then, a new FIA regulation introduced from 2014 onwards is for drivers to have permanent number throughout their careers, with numbers 2 to 99 available with number 1 reserved for the defending World Champion, if he wants to use it. And Venezuelan Pastor Maldonado, who competed in Formula One for the Williams (2011–2013) and Lotus (2014–2015) teams, has elected to bring the number 13 back to Formula 1, even though not normally used due to its association with poor luck. Let’s hope the number proves luckier for Maldonado who says it has a long history in Venezuelan sport.
Before entering Formula One, he won the 2010 GP2 Series championship. He became the first Venezuelan to win a Formula One Grand Prix when he won the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix for Williams, from his first and only pole position. When it comes to Maldonado's reputation, Maldonado gained a reputation over his career as somewhat wild, accident-prone and unpredictable on the circuit. He was nicknamed "Crashtor" and a website called Has Maldonado Crashed Today? was created to track his many mishaps. Out of 96 grands prix, there were 29 retirements, and he incurred 39 penalties in his colourful F1 career, that's one every 2.4 races and 12 were for causing a collision.

2014/15/16/17 Formula 1 Rules vs. 2013 Formula 1 Rules

The 2014 season brings with it the biggest revisions to the Formula One technical regulations I can remember. Here is a short list of most important changes, and how 2014 rules compare with rules in action during 2013 Formula 1 season. The new rules have presented a huge challenge for the teams and engine manufacturers. Almost every single part of the car is a new design, from the front wing right back to the diffuser. It's been a massive job to accommodate all the changes of the power unit, especially new cooling requirements of the power unit, and what is the best way to optimize it in the chassis. So, let's se it.


You may copy and use any of the content of this site provided you make a clear link on your web site or printed matter to 'Formula 1 dictionary" as the source of that information. Also, you can not use my material and articles to make any money. I'm not making any money with this site, so why would you. I endeavour to ensure that the information I publish is free of other copyrights but it is essential that you check this for yourself before using. It is never my intention to deliberately infringe the copyright of any other person or organisation. If you have any concerns then please use the "Mail me" and I will investigate and take whatever action is necessary to rectify. As a volunteer and strictly non-profit making my only concern is to preserve information for future generations.


"The principle is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

Books to read

When we talk about legends in F1, Murray Walker is one of the few to earn the status outside of the cockpit. His passion for the sport was infectious, and never failed to make people smile. He was a master of his trade and will always be the voice of F1. God's Speed Murray and thanks for so much.
My thoughts go out to his family at this difficult time.

Terrible news about passing of Sabine Schmitz, a proper driving legend who'll be sadly missed by many. A fierce competitor, talented racer and "Queen of the Nürburgring" was an inspiration to many. She was the only woman to win the epic 24-hour at Nürburgring. She won in 1996 and then again the next year.
She suffered a longstanding illness with cancer.
She was 51. RIP Sabine.

Questions of race have made me tired since I understand what police brutality was, especially in America. I feel that what happened in the US was just a spark, that sparked everywhere ... I do think George Floyd's death sparked it across the world and I think it's amazing. Black Lives Matter is an activist movement which began as a hashtag #BlackLivesMatter after George Zimmerman was acquitted in the shooting of Trayvon Martin, an unarmed African-American teenager killed in Florida in July 2013.
Black Lives Matter is an inarguable demand for justice, equality, and reform regardless of race, skin color, or religion.

Some useful links:

-, a great site with a lot of technical information’s and explanations. Site is updated daily with news from F1 word.

 -, This site is a legend. A bible for racing lovers. News from all around the word. Unfortunately, to get access to all news, interviews and to open the site completely you should be subscribed to Autosport magazine. Anyway, great read.

- JA.F1 site (or blog) ovned by ITV Sport’s lead commentator on Formula 1 James Allen

- joesaward is the Joe Saward official blog about Formula 1 world. Joe is an journalist, who write primarily about politics in and around motorsport, specifically on the FIA Formula 1 World Championship

 - planetf1, another site with many different articles, news and statistics. Biased toward British teams, but anyway good read.

 -, Great history site. You can learn a lot from this site. Pictures, cars and many many more. Great.

4ormula1 is a database of Formula 1 history and statistics of drivers, teams, grand prix, and all results since 1950.

Enjoy range of Podcasts and Articles on Motorsport. Every week a Formula one chat on Missed Apex F1 Podcast with F1 journalist Joe Saward and tech Analyst Matthew Somerfield as guests. Also the exciting all electric racing series formula E on eRadio Show and Bike Show Lean Angle Podcast.

-Racecar Engineering, an online magazine with a lot to learn from, a lot of technical information’s and explanations

 -, La Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. Head organisation and ruler in auto sport.

 -, I don’t believe that I have to tell you anything about this site. It’s not about Formula 1 technology, but you can learn a lot about that too.

 -, a great site for normal car users. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets.

- Susie Wolff and UK governing body of UK motorsport have joined forces to launch Dare To Be Different, a high-profile new initiative which is about increasing female participation, not just on the track but in all aspects of the sport.